Provide your email for confirmation

Tell us a bit about yourself

country *

Please provide your email address

welcome to Rappler

Login

To share your thoughts

Don't have an account?

Login with email

Check your inbox

We just sent a link to your inbox. Click the link to continue signing in. Can’t find it? Check your spam & junk mail.

Didn't get a link?

Use password?

Login with email

Reset password?

Please use the email you used to register and we will send you a link to reset your password

Check your inbox

We just sent a link to your inbox. Click the link to continue resetting your password. Can’t find it? Check your spam & junk mail.

Didn't get a link?

Sign up

Ready to get started

Already have an account?

Sign up with email

By signing up you agree to Rappler’s Terms and Conditions and Privacy

Check your inbox

We just sent a link to your inbox. Click the link to continue registering. Can’t find it? Check your spam & junk mail.

Didn't get a link?

Join Rappler+

Join Move

How often would you like to pay?

Annual Subscription

Monthly Subscription

Your payment was interrupted

Exiting the registration flow at this point will mean you will loose your progress

Your payment didn’t go through

Exiting the registration flow at this point will mean you will loose your progress

welcome to Rappler+

welcome to Move

welcome to Move & Rappler+

INFOGRAPHIC: Pork barrel trail - how gov't funds end with Napoles

MANILA, Philippines - Many years back, pork barrel misuse came in the form of kickbacks that lawmakers reap from favored contractors who bagged rigged bidding contracts in public works projects like farm-to-market roads and construction of school buildings.

The kickbacks, which ranged between 20% to 50%, inevitably led to substandard and incomplete projects, and in some cases, non-existent ones. At the time, lawmakers had total discretion over where and how their pork barrel would be allocated.

The public outrage that resulted from this system led to reforms involving the use of congressional allocations of lawmakers were used. The Department of Budget and Management under Emilia Boncodin came up with a "list of menu" where the pork barrel can only be allocated.

Another Boncodin reform also limited lawmakers’ discretion over their Priority Development Assistance Fund, reassigning the implementation of their pork barrel to the government agencies.

But graft and greed have a way of going around the system.

As it appears, pork barrel abuse has worsened, taken to a higher level of misuse. While a portion of the pork barrel went to substandard projects, this time, PDAF is split between the supplier and the lawmaker, funneled directly to private pockets and bank accounts.

The infographic below shows how the pork barrel scam has mutated since the reforms were introduced. Data below were provided by whistleblowers, erstwhile employees of Janet Lim-Napoles, to Levito Baligod, detailing the flow and trail of pork barrel. Hover over the "i" icons in each square and understand what happens every step of the way.

- Rappler.com