The air force first dispatched its Huey combat utility helicopters and the MG-520 light attack helicopters for reconnaissance flights, tactical lifts to bring troops to the combat zone, and persuasion flights.
When the rebels showed equal tenacity in the first 24 hours of the siege, the military was forced to bring in more troops and supplies from other areas through the C-130s.
The air force now has 3 working C-130 cargo planes that are used to bring in troops and military hardware. If the siege happened a year ago, the air force would have had to live with only one operational C-130.
Photo by LeAnne Jazul/Rappler
The pilots worked double time. On Day 2 of the crisis, September 10, President Benigno Aquino III declared an "overwhelming force" in Zamboanga City.
During the early days of the siege, only the air force's planes and helicopters could fly into Zamboanga. Flight paths were changed to make sure the planes didn't fly over the combat zone. They couldn't risk the rebels shooting them down.
The risk was real. Choppers securing the President's plane were shot at when he flew into Zamboanga, Interior and Local Government Secretary Manuel “Mar” Roxas II said in one of his press conferences during the crisis.
While rapid deployment was the most crucial role of the air force, the pilots also provided close air support and joined the gunfight. The 14th Strike Wing was responsible for the air strikes.
File photo courtesy of the Philippine Air Force
Army’s Light Reaction Battalion
On the ground, the terrain proved tough for battle-tested troops used to fighting rebels in the jungles and remote, uphill areas.
The villages occupied by MNLF rebels were populated with thousands of residents who live in shanties, own small shops and work in buildings. The rebels were shooting from rooftops, windows and back alleys. Their biggest defense were the residents trapped in the battle zone.
It was a conflict that required the kills of the Light Reaction Battalion (LRB), the army’s lead counter-terrorist unit composed of Scout Rangers and Special Forces. As the name connotes, they move with speed and carry only the most essential weapons with them.
Trained by the Americans after the September 11, 2001 attacks, the unit started as a Light Reaction Company of two dozen troops. They are trained to clear buildings. They are experts in counter-sniper tactics. They can fight in total darkness using modern gadgets and equipment. About 300 of them were deployed to Zamboanga City.
“The terrain requires different approaches. There are a lot of places to hide. There are many alleys and many walls. You don’t even know that your enemy is on the other side of the fence,” explained AFP spokesperson Lt Col Ramon Zagala, who himself belongs to the Philippine Army's Special Forces.
The LRB troops got the honor of finishing the fight but also the tragedy of losing the most — 12 of them.
Photo by LeAnne Jazul/Rappler
Army Scout Ranger 1Lt Francis Damian was one of the officers killed during the operation against the MNLF. A sniper bullet pierced through his helmet, damaging his skull. He was brought to the hospital but died later.
The MNLF snipers, who were able to take strategic positions inside the combat zone, delayed military operations and claimed many soldiers' lives.
That and the burning, Zagala said. Fires repeatedly forced the soldiers to retreat. Over 10,000 houses were damaged, according to government data.
Despite the cost and the loss, the military maintained it's mission accomplished for them.
“In the history of the AFP, this is among our greatest achievements as a military institution,” Armed Forces chief of staff Gen Emmanuel Bautista told reporters.
His father, the late Brig Gen Teodulfo Bautista, was killed in 1977 by MNLF members when he chose to meet with them — unarmed — in Patikul, Sulu to discuss a possible ceasefire.
"Personally, I did not allow that to cloud my decisions, and I did not want to be at the forefront [during the operations]. If you noticed, I was very low key." It's his father's 36th death anniversary on October 10.
On Day 19 of the crisis, September 27, all hostages were accounted for. According to military statistics, 195 hostages were rescued, two were killed, and 7 were wounded.
"By any standards, I think that is a good accomplishment on the part of the military," Bautista said.