LIST: Drilon's proposed changes to the Revised Penal Code

MANILA, Philippines – Senate President Franklin Drilon filed a bill on Friday, March 6, to propose many amendments to the 85-year-old Revised Penal Code (RPC).

Senate Bill 2680 seeks to adjust the threshold amounts in determining criminal liability for various crimes and to increase the amount of imposable fines "to make it more reflective of the present political, socio-economic and cultural settings." The RPC was enacted in 1930.

"Eighty years had inevitably dulled the edge of a once sharp measure. The penalties and fines for various crimes under the Revised Penal Code are no longer commensurate to the crime committed," Drilon said in a statement.

He also said that since the RPC's enactment, it has remained "virtually unchanged, with only piecemeal amendments incorporated through the years."

"The P200 our elders had in their pockets back in the 1930s surely had higher value than the P200 in our wallets today," he explained further.

His proposed measure, Drilon added, aims to restore the proportionality of the crime to the punishment by revising the amounts in the Code's various provisions to their present values.

Drilon also noted that the deterrent effect of imposable fines has diminished through the years due to various factors like inflation. To curb criminality, Drilon said that tougher but fair, just, and reasonable penalties and monetary fines need to be enforced.

"In undertaking these changes to an archaic law, we intend to craft a sound, fair and effective policy against criminality that reflects a proper balance among the established goals of criminal justice," said Drilon.

Here is a list of Drilon's proposed amendments to the Revised Penal Code in Senate Bill 2680.

Click on any of the items in the accordion list below to see detailed amendments to the law.

Adjustments in identifying some penalties (Article 26) Afflictive penalty - if fine imposed exceeds P1.2 million (adjusted from P6,000) Correctional penalty - if it does not exceed P1.2 million (from P6,000) but is not less than P40,000 (from P200) Light penalty - if it is less than P40,000 (from P200) Adjustments in penalizing malversation of public funds or property (Art. 217) Prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if the amount involved does not exceed P40,000 (adjusted from P200) Prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods, if the amount is more than P40,000 (from P200) but does not exceed P1.2 million (from P6,000) Prision mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal in its minimum period, if the amount is more than P1.2 million (from P6,000) but is less than P2.4 million (from P12,000) Reclusion temporal, in its medium and maximum periods, if the amount is more than P2.4 million (from P12,000) but is less than P4.4 million (from P22,000) Reclusion temporal in its maximum period to reclusion perpetua, if the amount exceeds P4.4 million (from P22,000) Adjustments in penalizing theft (Art. 309) Prision mayor in its minimum and medium periods, if the value of the thing stolen is more than P2.4 million (adjusted from P12,000) but does not exceed P4.4 million (from P22,000); heftier penalties (termed prision mayor or reclusion temporal, as the case may be), if the value exceeds P4.4 million Prision correccional in its medium and maximum periods, if the value is more than P1.2 million (from P6,000) but does not exceed P2.4 million (from P12,000) Prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, if the value is more than P40,000 (from P200) but does not exceed P1.2 million (from P6,000) Arresto mayor in its medium period to prision correccional in its minimum period, if the value is over P10,000 (from P50) but does not exceed P40,000 (from P200) Arresto mayor to its full extent, if the value is over P1,000 (from P5) but does not exceed P10,000 (from P50) Arresto mayor in its minimum and medium periods, if such value does not exceed P1,000 (from P5) Arresto menor or a fine not exceeding P40,000 (from P200), if the theft is committed under the circumstances enumerated in paragraph 3 of the next preceding article and the value of the thing stolen does not exceed P1,000 (from P5) Arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not exceeding P10,000 (from P50), when the value of the thing stolen is not over P1,000 (from P5), and the offender shall have acted under the impulse of hunger, poverty, or the difficulty of earning a livelihood for the support of himself or his family Adjustments in penalizing swindling/estafa (Art. 315) Prision correccional in its maximum period to prision mayor in its minimum period, if the amount involved is over P2.4 million (adjusted from P12,000) but does not exceed P4.4 million (from P22,000); heftier penalties (termed prision mayor or reclusion temporal, as the case may be), if the amount exceeds P4.4 million Prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, if the amount is over P1.2 million (from P6,000) but does not exceed P2.4 million (from P12,000) Arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision correccional in its minimum period, if the amount is over P40,000 (from P200) but does not exceed P1.2 million (from P6,000) Arresto mayor in its maximum period, if such amount does not exceed P40,000 (from P200) Adjustments in penalizing special cases of malicious mischief (Art. 328) Prision correccional in its minimum and medium periods, if the value of damage caused exceeds P200,000 (adjusted from P1,000) Arresto mayor, if value does not exceed P200,000 (from P1,000) but is over P40,000 (from P200) Arresto menor, if value does not exceed P40,000 (from P200) Adjustments in penalizing other mischiefs (Art. 329) Arresto mayor in its medium and maximum periods, if value of damage caused exceeds P200,000 (from P1,000) Arresto mayor in its minimum and medium periods, if value is over P40,000 (from P200) but does not exceed P200,000 (from P1,000) Arresto menor or fine of not less than the value of damage caused and not more than P40,000 (from P200), if the amount does not exceed P40,000 (from P200) or cannot be estimated Maximum P20,000 fine increased to P4 million: Treason (Art. 114) Maximum P10,000 fine increased to P2 million: Conspiracy to commit treason (Art. 115) Penalty for the leader of a sedition (Art. 140) Making and importing and uttering false coins, if it be a silver coin of the Philippines or a coin of the Central Bank of the Philippines of 10-centavo denomination or above (Art. 163) Forging treasury or bank notes on other documents payable to bearer; importing, and uttering such false or forged notes and documents, if it is an obligation or security of the United States or of the Philippines Islands (Art. 166) Manufacturing and possession of instruments or implements for falsification (Art. 176) Slavery (Art. 272) Maximum P8,000 fine increased to P1.6 million: Conspiracy and proposal to commit coup d'etat (Art. 136) Maximum P6,000 fine increased to P1.2 million: Counterfeiting, importing and uttering instruments not payable to bearer (Art. 167) Falsification of legislative documents (Art. 170) False testimony in civil cases, if the amount in controversy shall exceed P1 million (likewise raised from P5,000) (Art. 182) Maximum P5,000 fine increased to P1 million: Proposal to commit treason (Art. 115) Conspiracy to commit rebellion or insurrection (Art. 136) Penalty for other persons participating in a sedition (Art. 140) Forging treasury or bank notes on other documents payable to bearer; importing, and uttering such false or forged notes and documents, if it is a circulating note issued by any banking association duly authorized by law to issue the same (Art. 166) Forging treasury or bank notes on other documents payable to bearer; importing, and uttering such false or forged notes and documents, if it was issued by a foreign government (Art. 166) Falsification by public officer, employee or notary or ecclesiastic minister (Art. 171) Falsification by private individual and use of falsified documents (Art. 172) Maximum P2,000 fine increased to P400,000: Proposal to commit rebellion or insurrection (Art. 136) Conspiracy to commit sedition (Art. 141) Inciting to sedition (Art. 142) Making and importing and uttering false coins, if it be any of the minor coinage of the Philippines or of the Central Bank of the Philippines below 10-centavo denomination (Art. 163) Mutilation of coins; Importation and utterance of mutilated coins (Art. 164) Forging treasury or bank notes on other documents payable to bearer; importing, and uttering such false or forged notes and documents, when it is a circulating note or bill issued by a foreign bank duly authorized therefor (Art. 166) Officer breaking seal (Art. 227) Opening of closed documents (Art. 228) Revelation of secrets by an officer, if the revelation shall have caused serious damage to the public interest (Art. 229) Maximum P1,000 fine increased to P200,000: Search warrants maliciously obtained and abuse in the service of those legally obtained (Art. 129) Penalty for founders, directors, and presidents of illegal associations (Art. 147) Direct assaults, when it is committed with a weapon or when the offender is a public officer or employee, or when the offender lays hands upon a person in authority (Art. 148) Tumults and other disturbance of public orders; tumultuous disturbance or interruption liable to cause disturbance, if the act is not included in the provisions of Articles 131 and 132 (Art. 153) Making and importing and uttering false coins, if it be the currency of any foreign country (Art. 163) False medical certificates, false certificates of merits or service, etc. (Art. 174) False testimony against a defendant (select cases) (Art. 180) False testimony favorable to the defendants (Art. 181) False testimony in civil cases, if the amount in controversy shall not exceed said amount [P1 million, which was likewise raised from P5,000] or cannot be estimated (Art. 182) Removal, concealment or destruction of documents, whether or not serious damage shall have been caused thereby to a third party or to the public interest (Art. 226) Public officer revealing secrets of private individual (Art. 230) Open disobedience (for any judicial or executive officer) (Art. 231) Refusal of assistance, if such failure to lend his cooperation towards the administration of justice or other public service shall result in serious damage to the public interest, or to a third party (Art. 233) Refusal to discharge elective office (Art. 234) Usurpation of legislative powers (Art. 239) Unlawful appointments (Art. 244) Penalty for pharmacists who, without the proper prescription from a physician, shall dispense any abortive (Art. 259) Qualified trespass to dwelling (Art. 280) Simulation of births, substitution of one child for another and concealment or abandonment of a legitimate child (Art. 347) Maximum P700 fine increased to P140,000: Inducing a minor to abandon the home of parents/guardians/persons entrusted with his/her custody (Art. 271) Maximum P500 fine increased to P100,000: Direct assaults, other cases (Art. 148) Indirect assaults (Art. 149) Penalty to any person who shall resist or seriously disobey any person in authority, or the agents of such person (Art. 151) Publicly using fictitious name for the purpose of concealing a crime, evading the execution of a judgment or causing damage (Art. 178) Refusal of assistance, if such failure to lend his cooperation towards the administration of justice or other public service shall not result in serious damage to the public interest, or to a third party (Art. 233) Maltreatment of prisoners, if the purpose is to extort a confession, or to obtain some information from the prisoner (Art. 235) Prolonging performance of duties and powers (Art. 237) Disobeying request for disqualification (Art. 242) Orders or requests by executive officers to any judicial authority (Art. 243) Less serious physical injuries, whenever it shall have been inflicted with the manifest intent to kill or offend the injured person, or under circumstances adding ignominy to the offense (Art. 265) Unlawful arrest (Art. 269) Exploitation of child labor (Art. 273) Abandoning a minor (Art. 276) Abandonment of minor by person entrusted with his custody; indifference of parents (Art. 277) Exploitation of minors (Art. 278) Grave threats, if it shall not have been made subject to a condition (Art. 282) Grave coercions (Art. 286) Discovering secrets through seizure of correspondence (Art. 290) Revealing secrets with abuse of office (by any manager, employee, or servant) (Art. 291) Revelation of industrial secrets (Art. 292) Premature marriages (Art. 351) Maximum P300 fine increased to P60,000: Inducing a minor to abandon his home, if the person committing any of the crimes covered by the two preceding articles shall be the father or the mother of the minor (Art. 271) Formation, maintenance and prohibition of combination of capital or labor through violence or threats (Art. 289) Maximum P200 fine increased to P40,000: Tumults and other disturbance of public orders – penalty to persons who in violation of the provisions contained in the last clause of Article 85, shall bury with pomp the body of a person who has been legally executed (Art. 153) Alarms and scandals (Art. 155) Concealing true name and other personal circumstances (Art. 178) Acts that are punishable in gambling (and, in case of recidivism, a fine ranging from P40,000 to P1.2 million, likewise raised from range of P200 to P6,000) (Art. 195) Penalty to persons who knowingly and with intent to use them, have in his possession lottery tickets or advertisements, or shall sell or distribute the same without connivance with the importer of the same (Art. 196) Betting in sports contests (Art. 197) Illegal betting on horse race (Art. 198) Illegal cockfighting (Art. 199) Penalty for vagrants and prostitutes (and in case of recidivism, a fine ranging from P40,000 to P400,000, which was likewise raised from P200 to P2,000) (Art. 202) Other forms of trespass (Art. 281) Other light threats (Art. 285) Other deceits (for any person who, for profit or gain, shall interpret dreams, make forecasts, tell fortunes, or take advantage of the credulity of the public in any other similar manner) (Art. 318) Destroying or damaging any useful or ornamental painting of a public nature (Art. 331) Slander, if it is not of a serious and insulting nature (Art. 358) Slander by deed, if it is not of a serious nature (Art. 359) Intriguing against honor (Art. 364) Any person who, by simple imprudence or negligence, shall cause some wrong which, if done maliciously, would have constituted a light felony (Art. 365) Maximum P100 fine increased to P20,000: Altering boundaries or landmarks (Art. 313) Maximum P50 fine increased to P10,000: Revelation of secrets by an officer, if the revelation shall not have caused serious damage to the public interest (Art. 229) Slight physical injuries and maltreatment, when the offender shall ill-treat another by deed without causing any injury (Art. 266) Maximum P20 fine increased to P4,000: Slight physical injuries and maltreatment, when the offender has caused physical injuries which do not prevent the offended party from engaging in his habitual work nor require medical assistance (Art. 266) Fines ranging from P6,000 to P12,000 increased to P1.2 million to P2.4 million: Immoral doctrines, obscene publications and exhibitions and indecent shows (Art. 201) Fines ranging from P200 to P10,000 increased to P40,000 to P2 million: Frauds against the public treasury and similar offenses (Art. 213) Fines ranging from P200 to P6,000 increased to P40,000 to P1.2 million: Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade (Art. 186) Failure of accountable officer to render accounts to auditors (Art. 218) Libel means by writings or similar means (Art. 355) Fines ranging from P200 to P2,000 increased to P40,000 to P400,000: Act tending to prevent the meeting of the Assembly (Congress) and similar bodies (Art. 143) Importation, sale and possession of lottery tickets or advertisements (Art. 196) Illegal betting on horse race (for any person who, under the same circumstances, shall maintain or employ a totalizer or other device or scheme for betting on horse races or realizing any profit therefrom) (Art. 198) Threatening to publish and offer to present such publication for a compensation (Art. 356) Fines ranging from P200 to P1,000 increased to P40,000 to P200,000: Disturbance of proceedings (of Congress or similar bodies) (Art. 144) Disobedience to summons issued by the National Assembly, its committees or subcommittees, by the Constitutional Commissions, its committees, subcommittees or divisions (Art. 150) Unlawful use of means of publication and unlawful utterances (Art. 154) Importation and disposition of falsely marked articles or merchandise made of gold, silver, or other precious metals or their alloys (Art. 187) Betrayal of trust by an attorney or solicitor – Revelation of secrets. (Art. 209) Prohibited transactions (for any appointive public officer who, during his incumbency, shall directly or indirectly become interested in any transaction of exchange or speculation within the territory subject to his jurisdiction) (Art. 215) Possession of prohibited interest by a public officer (Art. 216) Failure of a responsible public officer to render accounts (to auditors) before leaving the country (Art. 219) Slander by deed, for any person who shall perform any act not included and punished in current title, which shall cast dishonor, discredit or contempt upon another person (Art. 359) Fines ranging from P200 to P500 increased to P40,000 to P100,000: Anticipation of duties of a public office (Art. 236) Other similar coercions; compulsory purchase of merchandise and payment of wages by means of tokens (Art. 288) Theft of the property of the National Library and National Museum (Art. 311) Occupation of real property or usurpation of real rights in property, if the value of the gain cannot be ascertained (Art. 312) Fines ranging from P50 to P2,000 increased to P10,000 to P400,000: Subsisting and altering trade-mark, trade-names, or service marks (Art. 188) Fines ranging from P20 to P2,000 increased to P4,000 to P400,000: Prohibited publication of acts referred to in the course of official proceedings (Art. 357) Fines ranging from P10 to P100 increased to P2,000 to P20,000: Resistance and disobedience to a person in authority or the agents of such person, if it is not of a serious nature (Art. 151) Fines ranging from P5 to P200 increased to P1,000 to P40,000: Light coercions - Any other coercions or unjust vexations (Art. 287) Other proposed amendments Adjustment in amount stated in provision for failure to make delivery of public funds or property (Art. 221) "The fine shall be graduated by the value of the thing, provided that it shall not be less than P10,000." (from P50) Adjustment in amount stated in provision for light coercions (Art. 287) "... and a fine equivalent to the value of the thing, but in no case less than P15,000." (from P75) Adjustment in basis (amount of value of property taken) to penalize robbery in an inhabited house or public building or edifice devoted to worship (Art. 299) and robbery in an uninhabited place or in a private building (Art. 302) Adjusted to P50,000 (from P250) Adjustment in fine penalizing occupation of real property or usurpation of real rights in property (Art. 312) "... a fine from 50 to 100 per centum of the gain which he shall have obtained, but not less than P15,000." (from P75) Adjustment in criteria (values of damage caused) to penalize other forms of arson (Art. 321), cases of arson not included in preceding articles (Art. 322), and arson of property of small value (Art. 323) Adjusted to P1.2 million, from P6,000 (in Art. 321) Adjusted to P200,000, from P1,000 (in Art. 321 and 322) Adjusted to P40,000, from P200 (in Art. 321 and 322) Adjusted to P10,000, from P50 (in Art. 322) Adjusted to P5,000, from P25 (in Art. 323) Adjustment in penalizing imprudence and negligence (Art. 365) "When the execution of the act covered by this article shall have only resulted in damage to the property of another, the offender shall be punished by a fine ranging from an amount equal to the value of said damages to three times such value, but which shall in no case be less than P5,000 (from P25)"

– Rappler.com

Michael Bueza

Michael Bueza is a researcher and data curator under Rappler's Research Team. He works on data about elections, governance, and the budget. He also follows the Philippine pro wrestling scene and the WWE. Michael is also part of the Laffler Talk podcast trio.

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